WASHINGTON — Russian troops are encircling Ukraine from three sides. In Washington and Brussels, there are warnings of crushing sanctions if Vladimir V. Putin orders an invasion. Diplomatic families — both American and Russian — are being evacuated from Kyiv.
Yet there are still diplomatic options — “offramps” in the lingo of diplomats — and in the next several days the Biden administration and NATO are expected to respond, in writing, to Mr. Putin’s far-reaching demands.
The question is whether there is real potential for compromise in three distinct areas: Russia’s demand for ironclad assurances that Ukraine won’t enter NATO; that NATO won’t further expand; and that Russia can somehow restore some approximation of its sphere of influence in the region to before the strategic map of Europe was redrawn in the mid-1990s.
The hardest issue of all defies negotiation: Mr. Putin’s demand that Ukraine reverse its “drift” toward the West. That is a matter of national sentiment, and polls show that Russia’s seizure of Crimea in 2014 has only driven more Ukrainians toward Europe. Mr. Putin’s massing of the troops is likely to accelerate that trend, American officials say, rather than reverse it.
And as in all conflicts with roots in the Cold War and its aftermath, the subtext of any negotiation includes how the world’s two largest nuclear-armed states manage their arsenals — and use them for leverage.
While there is still time to avoid the worst, even President Biden’s top aides say they have no idea if a diplomatic solution, rather than the conquest of Ukraine, is what Mr. Putin has in mind. The Russian president views Ukraine not as a separate nation but as a land that was negotiated away after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many who have dealt with Mr. Putin believe he now sees it as his mission to correct that error, even if that means risking war to redraw the map of Europe.
Even if the diplomacy is for real, no one is certain how long they have to reach an accord. A few weeks? Until the end of the Beijing Winter Olympics, assuming that Mr. Putin — who is attending the opening of the Games — would not dare angering President Xi Jinping by starting a war that would divert attention from China’s big moment?
Not all the potential blockades to a solution involve the Russians. If facing down Moscow was once a bipartisan task in Washington, it is no longer. Even before the counterproposals to Russia are finished, Republicans have been using the tensions to portray the administration as weak.
Secretary of State Antony J. Blinken, trying to blunt the angle of attack, shot back on Sunday that “engaging in diplomacy doesn’t take the word ‘nyet’ out of your vocabulary.”
It is possible that Mr. Putin’s bottom line in this conflict is simple: that he wants to stop Ukraine from joining NATO and get an assurance that the United States and NATO will never place offensive weapons that threaten Russia’s security on Ukrainian territory.
On those two issues, it would seem, there is trading space. While the United States says it will never abandon the NATO “open door” policy — which means that every nation is free to make its own choice about whether it seeks to join the Western alliance — the reality is clear: Ukraine is so corrupt, and its grasp of democracy is so tenuous, that no one expects it to be accepted for NATO membership in the next decade or two.
On this, Mr. Biden has been clear.
“The likelihood that Ukraine is going to join NATO in the near term is not very likely,” he said at a news conference on Wednesday. “So there is room to work if he wants to do that.”
It seemed an open invitation to offer Russia some kind of assurance that, for a decade, or two, or maybe a quarter-century, NATO membership for Kyiv was off the table. But the Biden administration has drawn a red line at allowing Mr. Putin a right to veto which nations can join NATO.
More complex is negotiating the reverse problem: How the United States and NATO operate in Ukraine. Ever since the annexation of Crimea in 2014, the United States and NATO nations have been haltingly providing Ukraine with what the West calls defensive arms, including the capability to take out Russian tanks and aircraft. That flow has sped up in recent weeks.
To hear Mr. Putin, those weapons are more offensive than defensive — and Russian disinformation campaigns have suggested that Washington’s real goal is to put nuclear weapons in Ukraine. Administration officials say the United States has no such plans — and some kind of agreement should be, as one official said, “the easiest part of this,” as long as Russia is willing to pull back its intermediate-range weapons as well.
Upending the European Order
Mr. Putin has made clear that he wants to restore what he calls Russia’s “sphere of influence” in the region — essentially a return to the Cold War order, before Bill Clinton and Boris Yeltsin agreed in 1997 that former Soviet states and Warsaw bloc nations could choose whether to seek membership in NATO. Since then, the alliance has roughly doubled in size.
Mr. Putin wants all nuclear weapons out of Europe, even though those weapons — mostly gravity bombs that have been stored in Germany, Turkey, Italy and Belgium — have been there for decades.
Asked on Wednesday whether he would take those weapons out or stop troop rotations through the former Soviet bloc, Mr. Biden said, “No, there’s not space for that.”
Understand the Escalating Tensions Over Ukraine
A brewing conflict. Antagonism between Ukraine and Russia has been simmering since 2014, when the Russian military crossed into Ukrainian territory, annexing Crimea and whipping up a rebellion in the east. A tenuous cease-fire was reached in 2015, but peace has been elusive.
A spike in hostilities. Russia has recently been building up forces near its border with Ukraine, and the Kremlin’s messaging toward its neighbor has hardened. Concern grew in late October, when Ukraine used an armed drone to attack a howitzer operated by Russian-backed separatists.
Ominous warnings. Russia called the strike a destabilizing act that violated the cease-fire agreement, raising fears of a new intervention in Ukraine that could draw the United States and Europe into a new phase of the conflict.
The Kremlin’s position. President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia, who has increasingly portrayed NATO’s eastward expansion as an existential threat to his country, said that Moscow’s military buildup was a response to Ukraine’s deepening partnership with the alliance.
Rising tension. Western countries have tried to maintain a dialogue with Moscow. But administration officials recently warned that the U.S. could throw its weight behind a Ukrainian insurgency should Russia invade.
Rose Gottemoeller, who negotiated New START, the last major nuclear accord with Russia, said on Monday that Mr. Putin’s demands were partly “a temper-tantrum effect” after years in which Mr. Putin’s grievances have, in his view, never been taken seriously.
So is there room for negotiation? Perhaps there is, Ms. Gottemoeller said. She noted that Mr. Putin “cares about summitry with Biden,” which suggests that the two men might, ultimately, come to some kind of broader understanding about Europe’s future. At a minimum they could address the nuclear issues by reviving the Intermediate Nuclear Forces agreement, which Mr. Putin violated for years and President Donald J. Trump scrapped.
And the United States has suggested reviving an old agreement that would limit military exercises, prescribe how far away from borders they needed to be and reduce the fear that an “exercise” turns into an invasion.
The problem with this approach is that it sounds a lot like continuing the kind of grinding, incremental negotiations that have marked the post-Cold War era. And that is exactly the era Mr. Putin is trying to blow up.
Cuban Missile Crisis Redux?
If all these sound like quarter-century-old problems, well, they are. Which is why any new accords with Russia, to be truly effective, would have to embrace Russia’s turn toward deniable, hard-to-detect cyberweapons. As the Department of Homeland Security reminded private industry over the weekend, American critical infrastructure, including the power grid, is laced with Russian-planted malware. So far, it has been very careful not to trigger those weapons, and the United States has planted code in the Russian grid as well.
Such weapons do not lend themselves to arms control — they are hard to find and impossible to count. But no agreement with Russia that excludes them will address the constant, asymmetric battling that goes on between the two countries every day.
And then there is the problem that dominated the Cold War: nukes.
In the past week, Mr. Putin has been on the phone — not just to his old allies, but to the leaders of Venezuela, Nicaragua and Cuba. Some Russian news organizations have said the topics might be what Mr. Putin likes to call a “military-technical” response to the Ukraine crisis.
There have been hints from Russian officials about what that means: Russia could consider placing nuclear weapons back in the Western Hemisphere, within easy, short reach of American cities. If that sounds familiar, it should. It was the core of the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, the closest the world came to annihilation during the Cold War.
Mr. Putin’s logic would be straightforward: If the United States won’t remove its weapons from Europe — even aging tactical weapons that need to be dropped from airplanes — he would put American cities at similar risk. So far, there is no evidence that he is doing anything but talking. But even the suggestion of it has revived old fears.
“The last thing in the world President Biden would want is to engage us and Russia in a nuclear exchange,” said Thomas Pickering, a veteran of Cold War diplomacy who is considered the dean of retired American diplomats.
The fear, now as then, is escalation. “Many people have postulated how that might happen,” Mr. Pickering said. “Almost no one that I know has given a conclusive way to stop it once it starts.”